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Brooding is the provision of artificial heat to help the chicks in temperature regulation. The heat can be provided by gas or electricity. The brooder area should be ready at least 24 hours before the chicks arrive. Below is a checklist of the things that need to be done before the chicks arrive:

  • Provide the chicks with biosecure, clean housing.
  • Arrange equipment to enable the chicks to access feed and water easily upon arrival.
  • Chicks should not have to move more than 1m (3ft) to find water or feed in the first 24 hours.
  • Position supplementary feeders and drinkers near the main feeding and drinking systems.
  • Pre-heat the house and stabilize temperature and humidity before chicks arrival.
  • Achieve a floor temperature of 28°c and 30°c

On arrival at the farm unload and place chicks quickly. Ensure feed and water is available immediately. Allow chicks to settle for 1-2 hours then check behavior. During brooding emphasis should be on the following:

  • Temperature
  • Spacing
  • Ventilation
  • Feed and water.


During brooding it is important to maintain the proper temperature in the brooder. Below are the guidelines of the temperature to be maintained:

AGE (weeks) TEMPERATURE (oC) At chick level TEMPERATURE (oC) In the house
1 33 to 35 30 to 32
2 30 to 32 27 to 29
3 27 to 29 24 to 26
4 24 to 26 21 to 23

The temperature should be monitored by installing brooder thermometers at the height of the chicks. Also, use chick behaviour to determine if the temperature is correct. Excessive chick noise during brooding is an indication that the chicks are uncomfortable.

Symptoms of improper brooder temperatures include:

Low temperatures (chilled chicks)

  • Chicks are stressed. They huddle together, especially under the brooder. 
  • Watery intestinal and faecal contents leading to watery/wet droppings and wet pasted vents. 
  • They have increased mortality, get dehydrated, have slow growth and a higher incidence of ascites. 

High temperatures (overheated)

  • Chicks are dehydrated: they lie prostrate with their head, neck and legs stretched out on the floor. They pant.
  • Increased water consumption by the chicks, leading to distention of the crop and intestines.
  • Chicks move away from the heat source and seek cooler parts of the brooder.
  • There is poor flock uniformity.
  • There is higher mortality caused by cardiovascular failure.
Interchick day old chick in teh farm


The brooding area should occupy one third of the house during the first week of life. Expand the brooder area after every two (2) days and the birds should occupy 2/3 of the house by the time they are 14 days old. The birds should be allowed to occupy the whole house by the time they are three (3) weeks old. Proper spacing in the brooder ensures easy accessibility to feed and water hence good uniformity. Congestion in the brooder leads to high mortality due to starving out, poor uniformity and stunted birds.


During brooding it is essential to maintain proper ventilation regardless of the cost of maintaining the brooder temperatures. Ventilation is important in removing the ammonia from the house and ensuring that the litter is fresh and dry, thereby reducing disease challenges.

Chicks also need fresh air to grow and be productive. For proper ventilation allow 1 ft minimum ventilation from the top. In high temperatures open the curtains from the top and not from the bottom. This is to avoid drafts. Chicks are susceptible to wind chill effects.


When chicks start to feed, they tend to eat a good meal. If chicks are feeding and drinking properly the crop fills with a mixture of feed and water. Gentle handling within the first 24 hours can indicate the chicks’ progress.

Check a sample of birds two hours after arrival to ensure all chicks have found feed and water. Gently sample the crop of 30-40 chicks from three or four different places in the brooder.

Rearing and feeding:

Time of crop fill check after placement Target crop fill (% of chicks with full crops)
2 Hours 75%
12 Hours >85%
24 Hours >95%

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